martes, 28 de abril de 2015

BORIS GROYS, Volverse público. Las transformaciones del arte en el ágora contemporánea. Caja Negra, Buenos Aires, 2014.


(Publicado en la revista Arte y Parte N.º 115 | FEBRERO - MARZO 2015)



 La tesis general de este texto podría resumirse en una, aparente, simple pregunta: ¿desde qué lugar es posible hablar hoy del arte contemporáneo? O dicho de otro modo, hablar de arte implica -viene a decir Boris Groys- plantearse previamente un problema espacial relativo al posicionamiento o lugar de la escritura. ¿Existe realmente ese lugar? El autor del libro, ya en trabajos anteriores tales como Sobre lo nuevo (1992) o Obra de arte total Stalin (1988), abría el camino para indagar en los pliegues o en los restos dejados por el pensamiento posmoderno tratando de hallar lecturas que reclamasen otro espacio interpretativo. En Sobre lo nuevo trataba de condensar, en una sola palabra, la capacidad formativa del arte a través del estudio de lo que denomina lógica de intromisión de lo nuevo –valor por otro lado altamente despreciado por cierta posmodernidad- a partir del choque entre el “archivo cultural” y el “espacio profano”. Por su parte, en Obra de arte total Stalin, acudimos a una revisión del concepto de vanguardia en el marco del arte soviético. La tesis, muy resumida, sería que Stalin no fue quien puso fin a las esperanzas de la vanguardia soviética sino que, al contrario, Stalin es la consecuencia de esa vanguardia, o mejor dicho, el realismo socialista es la inferencia lógica, la única conclusión posible, de las esperanzas vanguardistas. De la misma forma podríamos referirnos a otros textos como Bajo sospecha, por ejemplo.
En Volverse público. Las transformaciones del arte en el ágora contemporánea Groys se centra en ese desplazamiento de lo visible, en ese “volverse público”, propio, según él, del ágora actual donde se desarrolla el arte contemporáneo. Según el autor, este “volverse público” esconde dos movimientos a su vez. En primer lugar un cambio que podemos denominar metodológico, es decir, el paso de la estética, entendido como ese espacio desde el que pensar el arte, hacia la poética que ya no señala una afuera del arte en sentido estricto. Y en segundo lugar, como extensión de este punto, el cambio de perspectiva desde el espectador hacia el productor. En el primer movimiento, lo que sostiene Groys es la idea de que la estética es constitutivamente un afuera de la obra, un otro-amenazante, algo que se construye modélicamente en la modernidad, mientras que la poética, en cambio, reclama un puesto en el interior de la obra. O dicho en términos cuasi-kantianos: la estética habla de un espectador desinteresado mientras que la poética reclama un autor interesado; algo que ya Nietzsche había señalado en La genealogía de la moral. Groys parte, en efecto, de la premisa de que “la actitud estética es la actitud del espectador” (p. 10), y que “con el objeto de experimentar algún tipo de placer estético, el espectador debe estar educado estéticamente, y esta educación necesariamente refleja el mileu social y cultural en el que nació o en el que vive. En otras palabras, la actitud estética presupone la subordinación de la producción artística al consumo artístico y, por tanto la subordinación de la teoría estética a la sociología” (p. 10). El arranque, pues, se inserta en una corriente más amplia de pensadores que consideran que la estética debería diluirse, desfallecer, e incluso desaparecer. Recordemos, por ejemplo, al Alan Badiou del Pequeño manual de inestética o al también francés Jean Marie Schaffer y su Adiós a la estética. El caso de Groys es otro, quizá menos radical, pero sí dispuesto a establecer la necesidad de una superación dialéctica de la propia estética a través  de la poética y el diseño. Ahora bien, si volvemos a su argumento o premisa inicial quizá hallemos en ello una falacia. Es decir, ¿es posible confundir la “actitud estética” con el “placer estético” y con “la disciplina estética”? En realidad Groys los enmarca como sinónimos, y, sin embargo, ¿es tan sencillo? Las tres expresiones sirven para que todo confluye en que placer, actitud y disciplina están formados socialmente, o dicho de otra forma, para Groys esto significa que estamos educados para ser consumidores. Y aquí, creo, está el salto argumentativo. De mi actitud estética hacia el arte no se puede inferir mi actitud como consumidor. O dicho en otros términos: Groys señala que existe algo así como una actitud estética que viene diseñada por nuestra posición social y que, por lo tanto, dicha actitud no necesita del arte para concretarse, lo que implica que no necesitamos la estética como disciplina. “La actitud estética –escribe Groys- no necesita del arte ya que funciona mucho mejor sin él. Habitualmente se dice que todas las maravillas del arte palidecen en comparación con las maravillas de naturaleza. En términos de experiencia estética, ninguna obra de arte puede compararse a una sencilla y bella puesta de sol. […] [Por tanto] el mundo real, no el arte, es el objeto legítimo de la actitud estética”. (p. 12). Groys por lo tanto mezcla la actitud estética con la estética como disciplina (un problema habitual y del que alerta Schaffer en el libro mencionado) lo que le lleva a deducir que el arte no forma parte del mundo real y que por lo tanto el mundo real (o la forma que tenemos de experimentarlo) es el terreno de la estética mientras que el terreno del arte cae en manos de lo que denomina poética. La estrategia de Groys tiene como finalidad tratar de repensar una nueva posición para el espectador. Si la modernidad estética está pensada en función de un esquema claro donde encontramos a un artista X que produce obra para un público determinado Y (tirano en mucho momentos, dirá Groys), ocurre que en el marco actual se ha invertido el proceso en tanto que el público es también productor de imágenes con lo que la pasividad anterior se diluye. Escribe: “Hoy en día, hay más gente interesada en producir imágenes que en mirarlas. // En estas nuevas condiciones, la actitud estética pierde su antigua relevancia social” (p. 14). Por lo tanto, concluye Groys que la estética no tiene ya cabida ni para la mirada hacia lo social ni hacia el arte, es decir, que ha perdido su antiguo lugar de enunciación. Añade: “Esto implica que el arte contemporáneo debe ser analizado, no en términos estéticos, sino en términos de poética. No desde la perspectiva del consumidor de arte, sino desde la del productor” (p. 15). Este cambio de perspectiva, según Groys, comenzó a operarse en las vanguardias cuando algunos artistas (dadás fundamentalmente) abrieron las posibilidades de una forma de hacer arte basadas en la fractura del sentido pasivo de la mirada/actitud estética. Pero a lo que alude, en el fondo, no es hacia un cambio de la estética por la poética (algo que, sinceramente, no clarifica), sino que lo que está narrando Groys, si partimos de sus ejemplos, es la historia acerca de cómo la vanguardia logra o diseña la separación entre arte (entendido como un modo de hacer transformador del modo de ver) y la estética (entendida bajo la perspectiva del mero placer sensorial). Y Duchamp es el maestro de ceremonias de todo esto, como en los sesenta lo será, por ejemplo, el arte conceptual.
            Es a partir de esta idea que señala a la poética como el espacio legítimo desde el cual enunciar lo artístico, la vía por la cual opta Groys para desarrollar el resto de ideas que conforman el libro. Por ejemplo, es el tema de capítulo titulado “La obligación del diseño de sí”. Leemos: “La forma última del diseño es, sin embargo, el diseño del sujeto” (p. 23). Por tanto, para Groys la poética es, primeramente, autopoética. Un diseño de sí en el que los factores éticos y políticos juegan un papel importante. De eso trata en otro de los capítulos, titulado: “La producción de sinceridad” donde leemos: “El problema no es la capacidad del arte para volverse verdaderamente político; el problema es que la esfera política contemporánea ya está estetizada. Cuando el arte se politiza, se lo fuerza a hacer el desagradable descubrimiento de que la política ya se ha vuelto  arte y de que la política ya se ha situado en la esfera estética” (p. 38). De nuevo, Groys establece comparaciones comprometidas. La estetización de la política no implica necesariamente que la política ocupe el lugar de estética como disciplina. La estetización del mercado del pollo no quiere decir que el mercado del pollo sea un lugar donde se sitúa la esfera estética. Es esta confusión entre la estetización –entendida casi exclusivamente como saturación o espectacularización– y la estética como disciplina del pensamiento, lo que le lleva a conclusiones del tipo: “el problema más grande del diseño no es cómo diseño el mundo exterior sino cómo me diseño a mí mismo o, mejor, cómo me relaciono con el modo en que el mundo me diseña” (p. 39). Lo que viene a resumir Groys bajo la idea de que hoy todos somos obra. No tanto que hoy cualquiera puede ser artista (parafraseando mal a Beuys) sino que de facto todos somos hoy arte, ready mades, espacios artísticos. Pero Groys no se queda aquí, obviamente. El siguiente paso es establecer un vínculo entre ese diseño significativo y el significante mismo del arte, es decir, su aspecto en tanto que mercancía. De esto trata en capítulos como “Política de la instalación” o “La soledad del proyecto”. Al mismo tiempo se ocupa en otros capítulos de dos artistas: Duchamp (en un capítulo en el que establece vínculos con Marx) aparece como padre de esa desmaterialización esquizofrénica del objeto artístico que hace del artista productor e invisibilizador de la materia artística, y Malevich quien, según Groys, mejor puede establecer qué es eso de artista revolucionario. Junto a estos elementos y en conexión con el afán de autor de considerar el presente como artístico (en un sentido totalizante y, por ende, simplificador) en tanto que todos somos productores o diseñadores de sí, establece interesantes lecturas que vinculan la religión con la  tecnología, así como Google como espejo narrativo o Wikileaks, o Second Life o Youtube.
            En este sentido, el libro señala la necesidad de no partir de la existencia de un afuera y de un adentro del arte contemporáneo en tanto que todos somos obra y, por tanto, productores, diseñadores. La poética o autopoética es el modo o ese lugar desde el que decir o señalar las transformaciones del arte contemporáneo.

            Como añadido, destacar cuestiones relativas a la edición. En el libro, en varios capítulos, se repiten casi con exactitud largos fragmentos. Así, por ejemplo, en la página 77 leemos: “Tradicionalmente se entiende que una obra de arte es algo que encarna al arte como totalidad, otorgándole una presencia inmediata, visible y palpable. Cuando vamos a una muestra de arte generalmente asumimos que lo que se exhibe –pinturas, esculturas, dibujos, fotografías, vídeos, ready-mades o instalaciones- debe ser arte…”, y el texto continúa a lo largo de una página entera. Bien, en la página 94 volvemos a toparnos con el mismo texto, con leves variaciones. Ocurre, de modo similar, en la página 92: “en su libro Diferencia y repetición (1968), Gilles Deleuze dice que la repetición literal es radicalmente artificial y, por lo tanto, entra en conflicto con todo lo que sea natural, vivo, cambiante y en desarrollo, incluyendo la ley natural y la ley moral”, y el texto continúa unas cuantas líneas más. En la página 185: “en su libro Diferencia y repetición, Gilles Deleuze piensa la repetición literal es radicalmente artificial y, en este sentido, en conflicto con todo lo que sea natural, viviente, cambiante y en desarrollo, incluyendo la ley natural y moral”. Esto sucede en más ocasiones a lo largo del libro, lo que lleva a pensar, obviamente, que el propio Groys tiende a reutilizar los mismos fragmentos en diferentes textos sin percatarse de ello.

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